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Arranged in order of publication with the most recent on top. Scroll down for all entries. Selection does not necessarily imply endorsement of findings or research methodology by Diversity Dynamics and its partners. We regret that we may not be able to repair broken links promptly.

Immigrants live in local communities, places where people interact on a daily basis, children attend school, and local government and community groups provide basic services. Immigration can stimulate economic growth and dynamic cultural exchange, or create tensions and conflict. Local political and civic leadership is crucial to ensuring positive outcomes and building community cohesion. Throughout the country, different localities are showing the way through innovative projects and approaches. This page contains information about some of these communities.


Cities at the Intersection: Climate, Culture, and Migration
Chicago Council on Global Affairs (in collaboration with multiple international partners), June 2022, 25 pp.
Authors: Florita Gunasekara et al

The Uniting Mayors for Local Solutions to Global Climate Challenges Project has brought together mayors and urban leaders to foster dialogue on the role of cities in responding to climate change and climate-related migration. Cities are often the preferred destination of climate-related migrants, whether moving internally or over international borders. Being on the frontlines of climate displacement, cities have to fashion appropriate policies and action plans, sometimes in the absence of guidance from national authorities. This report profiles the work of four cities in Africa and Europe. Afanloum (Cameroon), a small commune, promotes the integration of migrants through the involvement of religious leadership and the stimulation of coexistence between local communities and migrants. Iganga (Uganda) has set up a community development office encouraging migrants to take on leadership roles, invest, own properties and operate businesses. Braga (Portugal) has created a local climate action plan, which will halve its carbon footprint by 2030, create green spaces and raise awareness of climate change impacts. Montpellier (France) assists asylum seekers in completing applications, receiving services such as health care, and integrating culturally with French language tutoring. The report concludes that cities are at the forefront of policy innovation, taking local action to address climate threats and the challenges of migration. However, cities need additional financial, technical, and legal support, particularly to address the projected increase of the impacts of climate change on migrants and refugees in the coming years. (The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Why Cities Need to Prepare for Climate Migration,
Urban Institute, Housing Matters, February 28, 2022, 17 pp.
Author: Gillian Gaynair

Wildfires, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes – all are becoming more frequent and displacing more and more people. Tens of millions of Americans could be forced to relocate because of climate-related natural disasters, according to the authors of Why Cities Need to Prepare for Climate Migration. The report emphasizes the serious threat of climate change to migration patterns, looks at the example of Puerto Ricans fleeing to Orlando after Hurricane Maria, and identifies steps cities can take to prepare for an influx of climate-displaced people. Although all U.S. communities need to be ready to take in evacuees, the report finds that few are currently prepared to do so. Looking at the Orlando region’s response to a 2017 immigrant influx from Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria pummeled the island, the report notes that more than 65 leaders from government, businesses and nonprofits began working together to provide evacuees with a wide range of services, with the biggest challenge being housing. These leaders recommended that communities develop comprehensive plans before disasters occur, including allowing higher-density housing to increase housing affordability. In addition, the leaders stressed the importance of understanding evacuees’ cultures. An evacuee profiled in the report echoes the need for cultural understanding and highlights the help she received from the city of Orlando’s Hispanic Office for Local Assistance. (Ellen Balleisen for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute) 


Building Inclusive Cities: Immigration and Neighborhood Change in Detroit,

Global Detroit, August 2021, 80 pp.

Authors: Allan Mallach and Steve Tobocman

This report, entitled “Building Inclusive Cities: Immigration and Neighborhood Change in Detroit,” discusses the results of a two-year study conducted by Global Detroit in partnership with Alan Mallach and Data Driven Detroit. The report details the impacts that a rapid increase in immigration has had on two Detroit neighborhoods: Banglatown/East Davison Village and Chadsey Condon. The authors seek to explain why immigrants are drawn to these particular Detroit neighborhoods and to identify the assets, strategies, and resources immigrants have use to flourish in their new communities. The study is one of the first to investigate the effect of rapid immigration growth on urban neighborhoods and long-term residents. Thus, the findings could apply to other post-industrial cities in the United States. The report concludes that an immigrant welcoming policy is a highly effective strategy for stabilizing and bringing new life to disinvested neighborhoods, providing benefits to both new and long-term residents. The report makes several recommendations, including facilitating the development of immigrant small businesses and increasing the hiring of immigrants in municipal government and other public sector areas. (Erika Hernandez for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Cities, Climate and Migration: The role of cities at the climate-migration nexus,
C40 Cities and Mayors Migration Council, International Organization of Migration, March 2021, 78 pp.
Authors: William Roderick et al

The authors of this report are concerned that there is still no comprehensive legal framework to define people driven to move by climate change nor any kind of  international protection mechanism for such individuals. This gap leaves people on the frontlines, like mayors of major cities around the world, without the legal, financial or policy support tools to deal with the problem. Whether cities are the origin, transit point or destination for climate-induced migration, the intersection of climate impacts and migration – the climate-migration nexus – is relevant to them because climate-induced migration flows affect urban communities, infrastructure, services and socio-economic health. In addition, local action to mitigate or adapt to the climate crisis has the potential to advance the inclusion of migrants and displaced people or further entrench their marginalization and exposure to inequality and risk.  Nevertheless, some mayors are leading the way by showing what equitable and inclusive climate action looks like in practice. Cities such as Anchorage (U.S.), Freetown (Sierra Leone), Bristol (UK), Dhaka (Bangladesh), Sao Paulo (Brazil) and Houston (U.S.) provide critical examples of city leadership in this area. This paper not only describes their efforts but also identifies a number of potential entry points for cities to play a greater role, alongside national and international bodies in defining and implementing new policies in this area.

Chicago Council on Global Affairs, September 2020, 86 pp.
Authors:  Paul N. McDaniel & Rob Paral

This report provides an overview of the Chicago region’s immigrant inclusive policies and attempts to provide context for the area’s relatively positive attitude toward immigrants.  Numerous tables and charts quantify the local immigrant population including countries of origin and socioeconomic characteristics.  Statistics are provided on the legal statuses of the area’s immigrants and the nature of their mixed-status families.  More than 1.6 million immigrants constitute 19 percent of the region’s population. Chicago’s proactive policies are facilitated by an Office of New Americans that promotes immigrant access to library resources, helps with small business creation, and provides counseling to Dreamers. A Welcoming City ordinance seeks to protect immigrants from detention and deportation.  The report describes other steps taken by Chicago and also by Cook County, the state and regional non-governmental organizations to welcome immigrants.  Multiple immigrant-serving agencies are described in terms of their role in advocacy, policy development, workforce development, and cultural representation.  Numerous immigrant leaders of local organizations are profiled in the publication. According to the report, the State of Illinois and the city of Chicago have among the most immigrant-friendly public policies in the nation.  In 2020 Illinois created a state-funded insurance program for undocumented seniors.  The state also funds immigration legal aid for undocumented immigrants, and prohibits for-profit immigrant detention centers.  Chicago recently expanded its prohibitions against the Chicago Police Department cooperating with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.  The city funds immigration legal aid, and has been ranked the “most immigrant friendly city in America.” (Rob Paral, Rob Paral & Associates)

Immigrant Integration Plan 2020-2030: Aurora is open to the world,
Office of International & Immigrant Affairs, City of Aurora, Colorado, 2020, 48 pp.

The City of Aurora, Colorado, has published its plan for immigrant integration for the coming decade. Spearheaded by the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, this plan follows up on an earlier three-year plan that was drafted in 2015.  The first part of the new document provides details on the diversity of this Denver metro area community, and makes the case for the city’s efforts to help immigrants settle in to their new home. The next section reviews the accomplishments of the city’s work with immigrants to date. Several of the city’s programs have garnered awards from national organizations and have served as models for other communities. The new plan lays out action in 12 goal areas: small business, financial literacy and economic growth; housing and home ownership; employment and workforce development; education and English acquisition; language access and services; public safety; leadership development; health and wellness; international trade and business; citizenship and naturalization; arts and culture; and sports and recreation. Before drafting its planned activities, the city surveyed its foreign- and native-born residents, conducted focus groups in several immigrant communities and with nonprofit partners, and conducted interviews with leaders in immigrant communities, city agencies, and city politicians. The report concludes with a brief discussion of how it intends to measure its progress in implementing the new plan. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates)

Welcoming Communities: Immigrant Incorporation in Dallas, Texas,
Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, Policy Research Project 219, 2020,
171 pp.
Director:  Ruth Ellen Wasem

This report, based on research conducted by students at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas, examines the strengths and weaknesses of the policies pursued by the City of Dallas in facilitating the integration of the city’s immigrants. The research team used integration measures developed by New American Economy (NAE), an organization that compares and ranks the integration policies of the 100 largest U.S. cities. The students also analyzed residential patterns and socioeconomic data of Dallas’s immigrants, and surveyed immigrants in two Dallas neighborhoods to assess their own perceptions of life in Dallas. The findings, presented to the city’s Office of Welcoming Communities and Immigrant Affairs, include a wealth of data on the immigrant communities in Dallas and the extent to which city assets are equitably accessed by those communities (for example, the location of workforce development resources). There is also data on the housing stock, and neighborhoods in danger of gentrification, with its attendant problems for current residents. Despite Dallas’s committed government leadership (it is the first city in Texas to earn “Certified Welcoming” status from Welcoming America), it ranked lower in NAE’s index on livability — homeownership rate, rent burden, overcrowding, health insurance coverage and educational attainment. The report includes a number of recommendations to address problems in these areas, as the city continues to strengthen its relationships with its immigrant communities. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Associates)

Talking the Talk – How Cities Shape Migration Narratives on the Global Agenda,
The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, June 10, 2020, 5 pp.
Author: Janina Stürner

What do Kampala, Uganda; Utrecht, the Netherlands; and Gaziantep, Turkey, have in common? They are among an increasing number of cities that strive to influence international migration policies by contributing local expertise to intergovernmental decision-making. Through participation in initiatives such as the “Mayors Mechanism” in the Global Forum on Migration and Development, cities strive to prevent the politicization of migration issues by attempting to change prevailing narratives on migration. “Talking the Talk – How Cities Shape Migration Narratives on the Global Agenda,” published by the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, discusses the four most salient narratives cities are using to reframe the migration debate: first, emphasizing the link between migration and development; second, stressing the notion of urban citizenship; third, referencing international human rights; and fourth, seeing migration as a normal human phenomenon. By using these narratives, cities are taking “glocal” action to promote migration as an opportunity for humanity, not a chronic problem to be managed. Examples of operationalizing these narratives include the city of Utrecht’s litigation to defend inclusive local measures and the offers of the mayors of Barcelona, Paris and Lesbos to welcome refugees. To continue changing migration narratives and to assert their positions in a global migration governance framework dominated by national and international actors, cities will need access to intergovernmental fora and opportunities to articulate their special perspectives. (Jasmina Popaja for The Immigrant Learning Center’s Public Education Institute)

Migrants Need Cities, Cities Need Migrants,
Chapter in: Andrea Tobia Zevi, Ed, The Century of Global Cities: How Urbanization is Changing the World and Shaping Our Future, ISPI 2019, pp. 102-122
Author:  Juliana Kerr

This paper discusses the role that cities play in migration, noting that the majority of migrants end up in cities, and that even as many national governments display hostility to immigrants and refugees, cities tend to be more welcoming. For many cities, incoming migrants counter population loss and constitute a crucial part of the labor force. While national leaders in many countries around the world have spread hate and fear, the leaders of local governments have called for tolerance and for welcoming policies. By working together to implement pro-immigrant policies, local leaders can make a difference even if national leaders favor restrictionist policies. National networks of city leaders are developing partnerships and exchanging best practices with city leaders around the globe. The author proposes four actions cities can take to manage future flows of migration: advance an inclusive narrative; set aside resources for integration planning and programming (such as, depending on size of the city, establishing an office of immigrant affairs); coordinate with other cities and work together to influence national policies in a positive direction; and take advantage of international resources and networks. (Maurice Belanger, Maurice Belanger Consulting)

NAE Cities Index,
New American Economy, 2018, unpaginated

NAE describes the Cities Index as “the first-ever comprehensive, interactive look at how the nation’s largest 100 cities welcome immigrants.” The Index aims to help answer two of the questions at the heart of the immigration debate: How well are immigrants integrating into the fabric of American life, and what role do cities play in that process?  In ranking cities, NAE examines two areas: first, local policies, and second, socioeconomic outcomes, especially the size of any disparities between immigrants and the U.S.-born population. In the local policy area, NAE utilizes 30 separate measures across five broad domains: government leadership, economic empowerment, inclusivity, community, and legal support. In the socioeconomic area, NAE uses 21 indicators in four domains: job opportunities, economic prosperity, livability, and civic participation. In the first roll-out of the index, the top five cities were: Newark (NJ), Baltimore (MD), New York (NY), Chula Vista (CA), and San Francisco (CA). Advising NAE in the design of the index is a 10-person advisory committee of experts in the fields of immigration and immigrant integration.

Newsletter of the American Political Science Association’s Organized Section on Migration and Citizenship, 5:2 (Summer 2017), 48 pp.
Authors:  Els De Graauw et al
This is one in a series of themed newsletters produced by the Section on Migration and Citizenship of the American Political Science Association. The issue contains six articles looking at the role of U.S. municipalities in either fostering the integration of immigrants and refugees or excluding them from community life. The articles explore a range of policy areas, including policing, sanctuary policies, immigrant entrepreneurship, language access, voting, and participation in community life. In her introduction, Els de Graauw of City University of New York provides an overview of the articles and comments that they “highlight some of the cutting-edge research” in their respective policy areas. One contributor is Tom K. Wong, who shows that counties with so-called sanctuary policies have lower crime rates and stronger economies compared to non-sanctuary counties. Marie Provine and her colleagues examine the formidable barriers that the Trump administration faces in securing the cooperation of local law enforcement in immigration enforcement, including the widespread commitment to community policing practices, officer autonomy and discretion, and the lack of incentives for local law enforcement to follow federal immigration directives. Cathy Yang Liu and Xi Huang examine the range of approaches and strategies employed by local municipalities to encourage immigrant entrepreneurship; and Ron Hayduk and Kathleen Coll discuss efforts to restore noncitizen voting in local elections, a practice that was common in the 19th century. Taken together, according to de Graauw, the articles “raise important questions about not only the power of municipalities vis-à-vis the nation state…but also the effect that municipal politics and policies have on immigrants and refugees and the communities of which they are part.”

100 Resilient Cities, May, 2017, 103 pp.
Funded by The Rockefeller Foundation, 100 Resilient Cities (100RC) helps cities around the world become more resilient to the physical, social, and economic challenges of the 21st century.  The Foundation provides funding for a Chief Resilience Officer in each member city. Believing that the concept of resilience has relevance to the challenges posed by migration and that "the mass migration we are witnessing today is not a temporary state of emergency, but the beginning of a new reality," 100RC convened a meeting in Athens in September of 2016 to examine migration as a key component of urban planning. Eight cities (Los Angeles, Montreal, Medellin, Paris, Amman, Ramallah, Thessaloniki, and Athens) played a lead role in planning this event. They were joined by representatives of expert organizations, such as the International Rescue Committee, Welcoming America, and the International Organization for Migration. The overriding goal of participants was to "unlock the Resilience Dividend," meaning that solutions developed for one challenge, e.g. immigration, should address multiple problems and constituencies. This report, described as a "blueprint," summarizes "the aspirations and strategic approaches" of conference participants. "It describes methods for integrating migrants into the formal economy; programs for lowering barriers of entry to small businesses and entrepreneurs; innovative designs for housing; examples of new city departments for migration; and many other programs for absorbing migrants in the long term while harnessing their contributions to the host community."

New Americans in Salt Lake County: A Snapshot of the Demographic and Economic Contributions of Immigrants in the County
Partnership for a New American Economy, March, 2016, 4 pp.
This report is the fifth in a series of local economic reports prepared by the Partnership over the last two years. Other reports in the series cover Denver, Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo. Each report tallies the spending power and tax contributions of foreign-born households, as well as their workforce participation rates and industry concentrations.  For example, in Salt Lake County, immigrants make up 16.7 percent of the labor force, but 29 percent of workers in the construction and manufacturing industries. The Salt Lake County report also suggests that immigrants helped to create or preserve 6,403 local manufacturing jobs that would have otherwise disappeared or moved elsewhere.  Other data points in the Salt Lake report include:  contributions to social security and Medicare, entrepreneurship rates, immigrant housing wealth, and the economic impact of international students on the community.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Welcoming Cities: Lessons from Chicago, Dayton, and Nashville,
American Immigration Council, February, 2016, 21 pp.
Author: Paul N. McDaniel
Playing a disproportionately large role in revitalizing communities throughout the United States, immigrant entrepreneurs should be factored into policies and initiatives seeking to boost overall economic wellbeing. This is the argument that Paul McDaniel makes in this report published by the American Immigration Council. Using interviews with researchers, business owners, government officials and community organizations, the report compares programs in Chicago, a major immigrant hub; Nashville, an emerging immigrant destination; and Dayton, a city with a small but growing immigrant population. The author details how the three cities designed entrepreneurship initiatives for immigrants to achieve broader economic growth. Rather than relying on top-down approaches, all three cities sought the input and participation of a wide array of community partners. In Chicago, for example, a New Americans Plan was created which reduced barriers to launching restaurants by streamlining the application process and providing a multilingual guide. The city also held entrepreneurship events that were specific to different ethnic and racial communities. The report concludes with a listing of best practices that can be adapted by other cities such as highlighting the importance of community-driven efforts and garnering public support for welcoming initiatives from local officials. (The Immigrant Learning Center Public Education Institute)

Opening Minds, Opening Doors, Opening Communities: Cities Leading for Immigrant Integration,
Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration, University of Southern California, December, 2015, 48 pp.
Authors:  Manuel Pastor, Rhonda Ortiz, Els de Graauw
The authors of this report explore municipal efforts to promote immigrant integration by looking at 63 city-level institutions across the United States. In the face of a heated national discourse that has often generated anti-immigrant sentiments, these cities are undertaking a "quiet revolution" motivated by their belief in the potential of immigrants to revitalize local communities. Using data from the American Community Survey and information from over 50 interviews and a literature review, the authors group the city initiatives into three broad categories: defusing tensions, attracting newcomers, and integrating immigrants into more established immigrant gateways. The authors include case studies of offices in Atlanta, Pittsburgh and San Francisco to illustrate the three approaches. The report also looks at offices in other cities including Houston, Nashville, St. Louis and New York. Besides having strong mayoral commitment, these offices tend to emphasize the economic contributions of immigrants, cooperation with local law enforcement, and relationship-building between newcomers and receiving communities. Recommendations for new and existing integration efforts include securing mayoral support, building institutional sustainability, collaborating with potential allies such as the business sector and law enforcement, all while coordinating services for immigrants and developing opportunities for civic engagement. (Jasmina Popaja for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Comprehensive Strategic Plan: 2015-2018
Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, City of Aurora (CO), 18 pp.
Noting that "immigrant integration is essential to the vibrancy, safety, economic prosperity and cultural richness" of cities, the City of Aurora undertook a strategic planning process to "maximize resources, develop innovative efforts, and avoid duplication of programs and services aimed at the local immigrant and refugee community."  The resulting plan calls for a number of organizational changes, some of which have already been implemented. The previously existing Office of International Initiatives was renamed the "Office of International and Immigrant Affairs." The Aurora Immigrant and Refugee Task Force will be upgraded to Commission status, and an "international cabinet or inter-agency working group" will be put in place, consisting of departmental representatives with responsibility over programs related to immigrant integration.  The plan lists activities in each of 8 goal areas:  integration through civic engagement, safety in our international city, integrating through language acquisition, integration in the neighborhoods, integrating through economic and financial growth, internationality as a driving force for economic development, integrating through sports and recreation, integrating through arts and culture, and integration through mental and physical health and wellness. The plan also lists key partners for each goal area.

Cities Welcoming Immigrants: Local Strategies to Attract and Retain Immigrants in U.S. Metropolitan Areas,
Background Paper, World Migration Report, 2015
International Organization for Migration, December, 2014
Author:  Marie Price
The most forward-thinking U.S. cities view the retention and inclusion of immigrants as critical to their success and sustainability. In Cities Welcoming Immigrants: Local Strategies to Attract and Retain Immigrants in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Marie Price of George Washington University utilizes case studies of U.S. immigrant gateway cities to demonstrate that cities with plans to improve the socio-economic outcomes of immigrants are lifted as a whole. The author finds that the most popular gateways for immigrants - New York, Chicago, and San Francisco - view immigrant integration as critical to their overall health, while former gateways - Baltimore, Detroit, and Pittsburgh - endeavor to attract more immigrants to stimulate their economies. Both types of cities have robust institutions in place to communicate with and serve diverse immigrant groups, including multilingual educational materials and outreach and initiatives to promote tourism and immigrant entrepreneurship. The report states that "emerging gateways," or cities with a rapid growth of immigrants after 1980, are less likely to have created such institutions and are more prone to nativism but still employ some strategies for immigrant inclusion. This paper concludes by recommending that, for successful integration, cities employ thoughtful diversity and inclusion strategies with elements of outreach, demographic analysis, leadership buy-in, and civic participation of the immigrants themselves. (Karly Foland for The ILC Public Education Institute)

Building Integrated Communities in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County, North Carolina: Demographics and Perspectives of Foreign-Born Residents,
University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), The Latino Migration Project, July, 2015,
70 pp.
Authors: Jessica White & Hannah Gill
This study aims to identify issues of concern to local communities with growing immigrant populations so as to develop effective plans for immigrant integration. Nine percent of Forsyth County residents and 11 percent of Winston-Salem residents were foreign born in 2012. The report draws on American Community Survey data in addition to a survey of more than 200 Forsyth County residents from 23 countries, as well as public meetings with 200 residents. Survey respondents identified many positive qualities about living in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County, including friendly neighbors; proximity to essential resources such as jobs, highways and hospitals; economic affordability; and work opportunities. Among the major challenges they faced were lack of adequate public transportation; discrimination by police and in the workplace; inability to obtain legal status; and lack of access to English language education and educational opportunities. The report includes recommendations made by the residents to ameliorate these conditions and encourage immigrant integration including more support for immigrant students, better communication of city regulations and a more trusting relationships between police and new residents. Information from this study will be used to guide the creation and implementation of a city- wide action plan for immigrant integration in 2015 and 2016. This is the fourth assessment process completed by the Building Integrated Communities (BIC) of the University of North Carolina. Since 2010, BIC has worked with four North Carolina Cities: High Point, Greenville, Sanford and Winston-Salem, to develop such plans.
(Chiara Magini for the Public Education Institute at The Immigrant Learning Center, Inc.)

Linking Innovation with Inclusion: Demography, Equity, and the Future of San Diego,
USC Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE), July, 2015
Authors: Manuel Pastor, Alejandro Sanchez-Lopez, & Jennifer Ito
This report argues that social equity and growth must go hand-in-hand if San Diego is to continue to prosper. The city has lost influence in state politics as the old "fishhook" strategy linking Republican voters in San Diego, Orange, Central, and Inland counties of California broke down. At the same time, the San Diego region has undergone a demographic transformation, having recently crossed the minority-majority threshold and now counting 24 percent of its population as immigrants. Although the region's economy has been doing well, San Diego is quickly losing its old manufacturing basis, resulting in a loss of middle income jobs and rising levels of social inequality. With wages growing much more slowly for low- and middle-wage jobs compared to high-wage jobs, San Diego now ranks 62nd in income inequality among the largest 150 regions in the U.S. The problem is most severe for Blacks and Hispanics, whose poverty rate is twice that of whites. After a brief discussion of the emerging literature on the connection between equity and growth, the report makes a number of recommendations in accordance with the principle of "interlinking (1) high-tech and high-need, (2) innovation and inclusion, and (3) people and place." Among the recommendations in the "innovation and inclusion" category is the development of a regional immigrant integration strategy, including the establishment of an immigrant affairs office for the City of San Diego, similar to ones existing in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Among the recommendations in the "people and place" category is a proactive campaign to promote the naturalization of eligible immigrants.  Other recommendations are designed to create opportunity for low-income residents in general.

The Welcoming Pittsburgh Plan: A Roadmap for Change
Welcoming Pittsburgh, June, 2015, 47 pp.

Shortly after taking office as Mayor of Pittsburgh in 2014, William Peduto launched the Welcoming Pittsburgh initiative, an effort "to improve quality of life and economic prosperity for immigrants and native born residents alike" and to grow the city's population by 20,000 in ten years' time. Through a competitive process, Peduto convened an advisory body of 40 leaders from diverse communities and sectors to drive the community consultation process and to develop a plan of action.  After holding a series of five public meetings, gathering survey responses from almost 2000 immigrants and native-born residents alike, and convening two "immigrant listening sessions," the committee released its Welcoming Pittsburgh Plan in June of 2015. The plan contains a set of 37 "actionable" recommendations categorized as short-term (6 months to a year), mid-term (1 to 2 years), long-term (3 to 5 years), or ongoing. The Committee grouped its recommendations into three broad focus areas: Welcome, Neighbor! Bridge to the City, and Prospering Together -- each of which will be spearheaded by an "action team" appointed by the mayor. One of the short-term recommendations in the "Welcome, Neighbor!" category will be the establishment of "Welcoming Hubs" at select community or recreation centers in the city. A mid-term recommendation in the "Bridge to the City" focus area will be the creation of a city office to coordinate immigrant integration activities. A long-term recommendation in the "Prospering Together" area will be to improve the recertification process for immigrant professionals.

Welcoming Nashville: Perspectives and Trends (Executive Summary),
Welcoming America & Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce Research Center, June, 2015, 5 pp.

As Nashville became a more diverse and international city, it experienced major economic gains and garnered a reputation for creativity and innovation. The national nonprofit Welcoming America, in partnership with the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce Research Center, conducted a survey of some 200 local business and community leaders to determine their views on the relationship between Nashville's vibrancy and its policies in support of immigrant integration. This executive summary of the survey results entitled, Welcoming Nashville: Perspectives and Trends, found that Nashville's competitive regional success in business and tangible economic gains across the city and in various sectors relied on welcoming immigrant workers, entrepreneurs, and their diverse knowledge while eliminating exclusionary "English Only" policies.  Significantly, over 80 percent of those interviewed felt that immigrants helped businesses reach a more global audience and 70 percent believed immigrants helped make Nashville a more innovative and productive economy. The report concludes with recommendations to continue fostering a welcoming climate for immigrants, including encouraging mainstream organizations to develop programs to meet the unique needs and cultural backgrounds of immigrants and their children. (The ILC Public Education Institute)

Immigrant integration in North Carolina: A Summit for Cities and Towns,
A report of the Latino Migration Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, January 2015, 15 pp.
This publication reviews activities and findings of "Immigrant Integration in North Carolina: A Summit for Cities and Towns," hosted by the Latino Migration Project at the University of North Carolina in September 2014. The paper describes effective immigrant integration practices and strategies implemented by four North Carolina's municipalities: Charlotte, Greensboro, High Point, and Greenville. Best practices include: engaging diverse immigrant and refugee groups in the integration planning process, recognizing their expertise on key questions, addressing common issues with other community groups in order to broaden the dialogue, and recruiting immigrant leaders to serve on municipal boards and commissions. The paper also summarizes the themes and "core values" that emerged from the workshops, including the importance of involving immigrants in all phases of planned projects, especially in leadership roles, and connecting to the experience of African American communities. The report also pinpoints some major challenges to the implementation of assessment-based recommendations, such as political resistance and funding limitations, and offers final recommendations from both speakers and participants.  (Chiara Magini, The ILC Public Education Institute)

The Role of Immigrants in Growing Baltimore: Recommendations to Retain and Attract New Americans,
New Americans Task Force, City of Baltimore, September, 2014, 47 pp.
The City of Baltimore competes with other major U.S. cities in trying to attract and retain immigrants as catalysts for economic growth and community revitalization. To better support immigrants, a New Americans Task Force created by the Mayor's Office studied this challenge and opportunity. This report is the result of this inquiry, and it both reveals the contributions of immigrants to the Baltimore area and makes recommendations to improve their integration into the community. The report finds that, since 2000, Baltimore has experienced a resurgence of immigrants who have boosted Baltimore's economy. In 2011, foreign-born workers earned approximately $1 billion in wages and their unemployment rate was almost two percentage points below that of the general population. Immigrants also tend to be more highly educated and are more entrepreneurial; they own 21 percent of the city's businesses, a figure three times greater than their seven percent share of population. However, the report states that more can be done to engage with and support the city's immigrant population. As such, the report makes 32 recommendations to better identify and meet  the needs of the immigrant community and to facilitate their economic contribution.  These recommendations are grouped into six categories: workforce development, small business development, housing, welcome and diversity, safety, and youth. (Robert Smith for The Immigrant Learning Center, Inc.'s Public Education Institute)

Immigrant Civic Integration and Service Access Initiatives: City-Sized Solution for City-Sized Needs,
Migration Policy Institute, September, 2014, 14 pp.
Author: Margie McHugh
This report focuses on five cities of varying sizes (Cupertino, CA, San Francisco, CA, Littleton, CO, New York, NY, and Seattle, WA) that have done promising work in promoting immigrant integration. The author draws content from five highly rated applications for MPI's E Pluribus Unum Awards. Among the initiatives described in the report are: Cupertino's Block Leader Program, Littleton's library-based one-stop information center, New York's city-wide language access policy, Seattle's Race and Social Justice Initiative, and San Francisco's Community Ambassadors Program. A central element in all these initiatives is the effort to "fully leverage existing resources...rather than the creation of parallel or stand-along services..." The various programs also rely on "authentic partnerships" with community members and on strong political leadership, especially from the mayor's office.

Revitalizing Detroit: Is There a Role for Immigration?
Migration Policy Institute, Transatlantic Council on Migration, August, 2014, 19 pp.
Author: Steve Tobocman
Over the past 50 years, Detroit has suffered from a spate of problems associated with urban decay culminating in its filing for bankruptcy in 2013, the largest American municipality to do so. In this paper, author Steve Tobocman poses the question, "How can immigrants help to revitalize Detroit?" Tobocman suggests that within a broad economic development policy, immigrants can contribute to the revitalization of Detroit's economy -- a position supported by Michigan Republican Governor Rick Snyder. Immigrants can make a difference in the following ways: first, as new immigrants tend to be younger and have a higher-than-average fertility rate, they will help reverse Detroit's aging and declining population; second, attracting highly skilled immigrants will expand the pool of knowledge-based human capital;  third, as immigrants are more connected to the global economy, they can help to improve Detroit's trade relations abroad; and fourth, immigrant entrepreneurs will move into struggling neighborhoods to revitalize these areas. Tobocman argues that the biggest challenges facing Detroit is its image, which has kept immigrants out of the city center where they are most needed, and ensuring that services and resources needed to support new residents keep pace with any potential population growth. Finally, he reviews some of the initiatives that have been established under the banner of Global Detroit, an organization that Tobocman leads, to attract and support immigrants. (Denzil Mohammed)

Giving Cities and Regions a Voice in Immigration Policy: Can National Policies Meet Local Demand,
Migration Policy Institute, July, 2014, 20 pp.
Author:  Madeleine Sumption
What are the potential gains and drawbacks to programs designed to give cities and regions greater control over immigrant admission?  In this essay, the author examines three policy frameworks that influence the regional settlement of immigrants and attempts to assess their efficacy. The frameworks are: supply-driven immigration (when national or regional authorities do not directly decide the destination of immigrants but immigrants gravitate to areas with jobs, family members and/or supportive communities); national policies designed to respond to local circumstances (examples include employer selection, changing the threshold requirements for immigrant salaries based on regional cost-of-living considerations, and encouraging wealthy immigrants to invest in certain areas by lowering the required investment amount); and "subnational selection programs," which actually giving regional authorities a say in the number and types of immigrants settling in their area (the two most prominent examples are  programs in Australia and Canada). Looking at the pros and cons of subnational selection programs, the author concludes that "perhaps, the most compelling argument in favor of subnational selection is that it allows local policymakers to admit workers with lower skills levels than the national standards - without requiring all jurisdictions to admit such workers."  Such programs, she points out, are not generally effective in attracting high skilled immigrants, as they can qualify for admission under national criteria and would likely prefer opportunities in other destinations.  Another argument in support of such programs is that they "could help channel immigration toward areas with the political commitment to integrate newcomers and/or fund settlement services." However, the bar is high in areas lacking support networks for immigrants. Without "well thought-out investments in immigrant integration," such programs are not likely to succeed.

The City Brand: Champion of Immigrant Integration or Empty Marketing Tool?
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), August, 2014, 11 pp
Author: Elizabeth Collett
In this insightful review of city branding strategies in both Europe and North America, Elizabeth Collett, Director of MPI Europe, distinguishes between externally-focused approaches, or "branding to attract talent," and inward approaches, or "branding to promote social cohesion."  She notes how difficult it is to synchronize the two approaches into a unified campaign, as they tend to appeal to different audiences. "Each targets very different immigrant cohorts. Strategies to attract talent tend to be focused on a rarefied stratum of mobile and educated workers...Meanwhile, strategies to develop a binding identity within a city must deal with those who actually live on its streets, irrespective of skill and status." Because of the tension between the two approaches, cities tend to adopt a two-track approach. However, the author points out that "without strong community identification and support, a brand will be worthless." In her conclusion, the author identifies a number of strategies for successful branding, including committed leadership from across the political spectrum, broad stakeholder involvement, and clear goals and benchmarks for measuring success.

Migration's local Dividends: How Cities and Regions Can Make the Most of Immigration,
Transatlantic Council on Migration, Council Statement, July, 2014, 12 pp.
Author: Demetrios G. Papademetriou
The Council produced this statement for its 11th plenary meeting held in London in November, 2013. Reflecting the desire of many cities to attract immigrants to reverse economic decline and stimulate economic development, the statement outlines a set of principles and recommendations that national governments should follow to help cities and regions satisfy their human capital needs through immigration.  The statement laments the fact that "systems for national governments to consult localities over broader human mobility questions remain deeply underdeveloped."  To correct this problem, the statement recommends a "more organic ‘whole-of-government' and ‘whole-of-society' cooperation" on both immigration and immigrant integration policy. Another major recommendation is to "allow employers, wherever possible, to select immigrants." Such an approach would allow employers in less populated areas, such as health-care centers in rural communities, to bring in needed medical personnel, even if national quotas are already oversubscribed. The Council cautions, however, that declining cities and regions should not rely on immigration as a panacea because "success may require exit" both for immigrants and native-born.  Only if other conditions are met will the "immigration boost" be successful. These include: nestling immigration policy into local economic development plans, creating the conditions for entrepreneurship to flourish, ensuring that city institutions reflect the populations they serve, and "creat(ing) spaces for people to interact, instead of trying to change where they live."

Enforcement and Immigrant Location Choice,
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, June, 2013, 34 pp.
Author: Tara Watson
Noting that "little is known about how the policy environment (in local communities) affects where immigrants choose to live in the United States,"   Tara Watson, an associate professor of economics at Williams College, sets out in this paper to determine how strict immigrant enforcement regimes influence mobility decisions by immigrants. She selects communities with 287(g) agreements with the federal government permitting local police to enforce immigration laws. Apart from the outlier case of Maricopa County near the Mexican border in Arizona, "there is no evidence that local enforcement  causes the foreign-born to exit the United States or deters their entry from abroad or from elsewhere in the United States."   However, there is abundant evidence that such agreements cause relocations across local areas, states, and regions of the United States. What is striking, however, is that "the effects are concentrated among more educated non-citizens... (who) are likely to be documented and to be productive workers in the economy."  Thus, according to the author, these agreements "may be missing their intended targets." Policymakers seeking to attract and retain skilled immigrants "should consider their enforcement regimes accordingly."

The San Francisco Immigrant Integration Project: Findings from Community-Based Research Conducted by the San Francisco Immigrant Legal & Education Network, 
2014, 32 pp.

Despite having adopted a "sanctuary city" policy for its large immigrant population, San Francisco is not giving its immigrants sufficient access to essential services, not opening wide the doors of economic opportunity and not engaging with community members.  This conclusion appears in a report by the San Francisco Immigrant Legal & Education Network (SFILEN), a network of immigrant service and empowerment organizations in the city.  In addition to surveying over 600 immigrants, SFILEN staff conducted more than 30 one-on-one interviews and nine in-language focus groups, and convened more than 150 community members to discuss the results.  The goal of this two-year community research effort was to assess the progress of immigrant integration in the city and provide policy recommendations to fill any gaps. The report finds that immigrants face barriers to critical services and programs, have difficulty in accessing affordable housing, are underemployed, are ignorant of their healthcare options and have a fear of law enforcement. Often, immigrants utilize "creative, community-based systems," informal networks, cooperative models and mutual aid programs to fill the service gaps they encounter. The authors suggest that meaningful immigrant integration necessitates improved access to basic services that can only be achieved through expanded community education, innovative and culturally appropriate strategies to overcome access barriers, and relationship-building with receiving communities.
(Denzil Mohammed)

Revitalization in the Heartland of America: Welcoming Immigrant Entrepreneurs for Economic Development
Immigration Policy Center, January, 2014, 13 pp.
Author:  Paul McDaniel
Several areas of the country are seeking to attract immigrants and to foster their economic integration as part of a new strategy to spur economic growth and stem population decline. In Revitalization of the Heartland of America: Welcoming Immigrant Entrepreneurs for Economic Development, author Paul McDaniel looks at welcoming initiatives in three places: Detroit, St. Louis, and rural Iowa.  Global Detroit, for instance, is working to encourage immigrant-led neighborhood revitalization through small-business support and services. The St. Louis Mosaic Project conducts public education on the importance of immigrants and offers professional networking opportunities for immigrant entrepreneurs. In Iowa, the State University Extension and Outreach Office conducts trainings to develop the leadership skills of newly-arrived immigrants.  Research suggests that initiatives such as these make local communities "more resilient when faced with economic shocks," Among the author's policy recommendations are partnerships between native-born and immigrant-owned businesses, enhanced integration initiatives, and comprehensive immigration reform at the federal level that creates clear pathways to citizenship and supports immigrants who want to start their own businesses. (Denzil Mohammed)

Blueprints for Immigrant Integration
New York City Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs, 2013
Knowing that cities across the country are interested in New York City's efforts to integrate immigrants and enhance the capacity of immigrants to spur economic development, the New York City Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs has produced a series of "Blueprints for Immigrant Integration."  The Blueprints were first released in conjunction with the Cities for Immigrant Integration Conference, hosted by the City of New York on April 25, 2013, and are "designed to eliminate the mystery and provide step-by-step guidance on how to better serve immigrant residents."  There are six separate blueprints: Introduction/Creating a Municipal Immigrant Integration Agenda, Citizenship, Civic Engagement, Economic Development, Language Access, and Police & Community Relations.  Five more Blueprints are forthcoming:  Education, Public Health and Health Care, Libraries, Financial Empowerment, and Domestic Violence Prevention.  The first (introductory) Blueprint notes that since 2010, New York City has launched "more than forty unique initiatives and policy support immigrant New Yorkers."

The Chicago New Americans Plan: Building a Thriving and Welcoming City,
Office of New Americans, City of Chicago,  December, 2012, 48 pp.
Elected Mayor of Chicago in February of 2011, Rahm Emanuel created the Office of New Americans the following July with the goal of making Chicago "the world's most immigrant-friendly city."  Almost two years in the making, this plan outlines a set of 27 initiatives "to help immigrants overcome obstacles and contribute more fully" to the city.  Described as "the first of its kind for any major city in the country," the plan is also designed to bring "economic, social, and cultural benefits for all Chicagoans." All initiatives are grouped into three broad categories: economic growth and jobs, better educated youth, and vibrant welcoming communities.  The plan seeks to institutionalize immigrant integration as a cross-sector and cross-departmental goal and to utilize the resources of a wide array of public and private agencies to achieve its goals.  Among the eight initiatives in the "economic growth" category are: creating a small business incubator, launching a "Chamber University" to support immigrant businesses, providing "pop-up city services" in offsite locations, and helping skilled immigrants reenter their former professions. Among the seven initiatives in the education category are: expanding early childhood education and creating more parent engagement centers. The 12 initiatives in the "vibrant welcoming communities" category are divided into three broad areas: public safety, access to services, and civic engagement.

Practice to Policy: Lessons from Local Leadership on Immigrant Integration,
Cities of Migration, 2012, 27 pp.
Editor: Bonnie Mah
This is the concluding volume in a series of reports highlighting promising local practices in immigrant integration. The first five reports cover local practices in Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and the United States, with separate reports devoted to each country.  The final report features essays by four international experts on immigrant integration: Audrey Singer (Brookings Institution, United States), Roland Roth (Magdeburg-Stendal University, Germany), Myer Siemiatycki (Ryerson University, Canada), and Jan Niessen (Migration Policy Group, Belgium). Singer emphasizes the shift in immigrant settlement to the suburbs and the need for these communities to develop new approaches to immigrant incorporation. Roth emphasizes the connection between good integration policies and the economic competiveness and vitality of cities and give examples of how cities have helped to unleash the economic power of immigrant communities; Siemiatycki  stresses the role of municipal planning, zoning, and land use in creating integrated cities; and Niessen stresses the importance of a coordinated approach to immigrant integration, involving government at all levels, as well as the private sector. He also points out "that migration is not necessarily linear but often becomes a circular process. Migration is more than the geographical movement of people because it leads to the circulation of social and financial capital and to cultural exchange." The report concludes with a list of 14 recommendations for local governments committed to the goal of immigrant integration.

Restrictive State and Local Immigration Laws: Solutions in Search of Problems,
American Constitution Society for Law and Policy, Issue Brief,
November, 2012, 18 pp.
Authors: Pratheepan Gulasekaram & S. Karthick Ramakrishnan
This study challenges the assumption that restrictive state and local immigration ordinances are driven by demographic and other changes on the state and local level, e.g. growth of the immigrant (especially undocumented) population, and the "failure" of the federal government to combat the problem. One of the better-known proponents of this view, according to the authors, was Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, who wrote in his dissent to the 2012 Arizona v. United States decision that "Arizona bears the brunt of the country's illegal immigration problem..." Reinforcing the pervasiveness of this view has been the emphasis on "new destinations" in the immigration narrative, which suggests that local communities without a recent migration history have been overwhelmed by the arrival of new immigrants. Through the authors' study of over 25,000 local jurisdictions in all 50 states, they found that the demographic explanation had "no predictive power." Indeed, "what most subfederal  jurisdictions with immigration enforcement laws share is not economic stress or overconsumption of public goods or heightened violent crime, but rather a partisan composition within their legislative and executive branches that is highly receptive to enforcement heavy proposals."  Cities in Republican-majority areas are four times more likely to pass restrictive ordinances, whereas cities with Democratic majorities are four times more likely to pass pro-immigrant measures.  Fearful of antagonizing Republican primary voters who "care intensely about immigration," elected Republican officials are either voted out by more conservative challengers or embrace restrictive positions. At the same time, "restrictive issue entrepreneurs," such as the leaders of FAIR and NumbersUSA "purposefully promote legislative gridlock at the federal level, and then cite the very national legislative inaction they helped foment to justify restrictive solutions at the local level." The authors also take issue with Professor Peter Spiro's "steam-valve" theory, which posits that the passage of local restrictive ordinances relieves pressure on the federal government to pass similar legislation.  Finally, they predict that these political dynamics, despite the results of the 2012 presidential election, will make national legislative change "difficult to achieve" and even if national immigration reform passes,  anti-immigrant politicians may continue to proliferate restrictive legislation on the local level as a way of holding on to power.

Public Space Management: Report to the Intercultural Cities Research Programme,
Cities Institute, London Metropolitan University, September, 2012, 81 pp.
Authors: Sue Bagwell, Graeme Evans, Antje Witting, Ken Worpole
In response to a request from the Council of Europe, this report examines "the intercultural use of public spaces," with special attention to three key types of space: community gardens, public amenities such as libraries, and urban parks. According to the authors, such spaces have the potential to foster intercultural connections among diverse community members; moreover, the design of spaces, as well as the policies that control their usage, can impact how diverse groups are incorporated into, or excluded from, the public sphere. The authors provide several case study examples from the UK and the Netherlands along with a synthesis of best practices that highlight the promotion of intercultural activity. Best practice examples include: creating a calendar of public events in order to identify and address diversity related gaps; ensuring that services, activities, and staffing of public programming and facilities reflect the makeup of local communities; and asset mapping public spaces to determine their accessibility to different ethnic and minority communities. The authors conclude by examining potential barriers to promoting inclusion within public space and offer solutions for overcoming common challenges, including concerns over public safety. A literature review is included in the Appendix. (Dan McNulty)
Good Ideas from Successful Cities:  Municipal Leadership on Immigrant Integration,
Cities of Migration, 2012, 94 pp.
Cities of Migration first issued its Call for Good Ideas in city-led immigrant integration efforts in October of 2011.  To date, some 100 cities from around the world have responded to the Call.  According to Cities of Migration, "these cities view inclusion and diversity as core values and assets in today's global economy." This collection of 39 model practices from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand shows the breadth and vitality of these efforts.  Practices are grouped into five broad categories:  crafting general policy statements to guide city efforts (5); promoting immigrant inclusion, participation and belonging (7); using the city's economic power to promote integration (5); adapting city services to the needs of immigrant communities (17); and promoting immigrant entrepreneurship as a strategy for economic development (5).  The descriptions of the good practice (1-2 pages in length) include contact information for responsible municipal officials to facilitate further research.

Positive Crossroads: Mexican Consular Assistance and Immigrant Integration,
(Link no longer active)

National League of Cities, Practice Brief, 2012, 4 pp.
The 50 Mexican consulates in the United States are the largest and most extensive consular network of any foreign government in the country. For the last 20 years, and especially since the creation of the Institute for Mexicans Abroad (IME) in 2003, the Mexican consulates have fostered and developed programs to assist, educate and help Mexican citizens in the U.S.  This publication provides brief summaries of the work undertaken by ten of these consulates in the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Illinois, Missouri, and New Mexico.

Immigrant Integration in Chicago's Suburbs: A Survey of Current Activities and Efforts
Diversity Issues Task Force, Metropolitan Mayors Caucus, February, 2012, 74 pp.
Reflecting the growing presence of immigrants in the Chicago suburbs and the related challenges faced by municipal leaders in providing services to them, the Guidebook is designed to overcome the "isolation" of some municipal leaders who are often unaware of successful immigrant-related initiatives in other communities.  The report notes that "the increase in immigrants to Chicago's suburbs means that municipal governments are increasingly responsible for serving residents that are new not only to their community, but also the country." With support provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, an online survey was distributed to mayors, village managers, and Council of Government directors. The first section of the report summarizes responses from the 109 communities that responded to the survey. Follow-up interviews were conducted with leaders in 8 municipalities (Addison, Aurora, Bensenville, Carol Stream, Evanston, Mount Prospect, Schaumburg, and Skokie) whose work is profiled in greater detail in the next section. The final section of the report discusses the work of 13 "organizations located in the suburbs that offer services and resources for foreign-born residents." Three of these organizations are the Illinois Welcoming Center in North Riverside, the Language Access Resource Center of DuPage County, and the Mano a Mano Family Resource Center in Round Lake Park.

Staying Put but Still in the Shadows,
Center for American Progress, February, 2012, 24 pp.
This policy brief cites evidence from a University of California (San Diego) study of unauthorized Mexican immigrants in Oklahoma City - a city which passed punitive legislation against unauthorized immigrants in 2007 and 2009, well before similar state laws in Arizona, Georgia and Alabama. In 2010, a bi-national team of researchers surveyed nearly all adults between 15 and 65 in Tlacuitapa (Jalisco), Mexico - a town which sends many immigrants to Oklahoma City -- and several hundred migrants from the town who live in the United States. The researchers concluded that "at best, anti-immigrant laws simply drive immigrants from one area (of the country) to another."  The essay also explains the main reasons why immigrants choose to remain in the country

Toolkit: Working on Integration at Local Level
European Network against Racism (ENAR), November, 2011, 45 pp.
Consisting of over 700 organizations working to combat racism in member states of the European Union (EU), ENAR produced this Toolkit to call attention to local projects adhering to ENAR's 15 principles for ensuring  a "positive approach" to immigrant integration.  The Toolkit critiques certain aspects of EU public policy which tend to "dilute" or "subvert" integration goals. According to ENAR, "unless integration contributes to achieving equality, our communities will remain divided."  The report profiles six promising integration projects in Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. All projects underwent "peer review" to determine whether they were successful in achieving their stated goals. The Toolkit concludes by outlining important steps that new integration projects should take to ensure successful outcomes.

Welcome Dayton: Immigrant Friendly City,
City of Dayton, Human Relations Council, September, 2011, 30 pp.
The City of Dayton (Ohio), under the leadership of its Human Relations Council (HRC) and with the input of more than 100 individuals and community organizations, produced this "roadmap for the City of Dayton to become a nationally recognized Immigrant Friendly City." The plan was officially accepted by the Dayton City Commission on October 5, 2011. The plan contains 20 recommendations and is divided into four sections: business and economic development; local government and the justice system; social and health services; and community, culture, arts and education. An ordinance to establish a Welcome Dayton Committee, as well as "small part-time office within the HRC to staff the Welcome Dayton Committee," is under preparation.  The plan is intended as a community-wide effort, involving both public and private partners.

Starting on Solid Ground: The Municipal Role in Immigrant Settlement,
Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 2011, 30 pp.
Referring to municipalities as "the front-line, first-responders for many immigrant needs," the authors of this report recommend a new approach to Canadian immigration policy, one that "engages municipalities to tailor solutions to local needs." Although Canadian municipalities are neither mandated nor funded to provide immigrant integration services, they are doing it anyway, particularly in the key areas of rental housing and public transportation, where immigrants are disproportionate users of these services. The report gives specific examples of municipal initiatives to promote immigrant integration and concludes with five recommendations, including urging the Canadian federal government to view municipalities as "key partners" in the resettlement process.

All Immigration is Local: Receiving Communities and Their Role in Successful Immigrant Integration,
Center for American Progress, September, 2011,
46 pp
Written by Michael Jones-Correa of Cornell University, this report argues for the engagement of receiving communities in immigrant integration efforts and suggests four key strategies to bring about such engagement:  promoting strong local leadership, fostering contact between immigrants and the native-born,  building partnerships between state and local government and immigrant communities, and reframing issues to counter misconceptions about immigrants.   The report contains examples of how these strategies were employed in specific communities, with many examples drawn from convocation on the Receiving Communities Initiative, held in Washington, D.C., in December, 2010.  The author emphasizes the importance of developing metrics for measuring the success of community engagement efforts, and concludes with a series of recommendations for philanthropic institutions and government at all levels. A companion "toolkit" to the report, with practical suggestions and information about local programs, will be released by the Spring Institute in October of 2011.
Crossroads of the World: New Americans in Middlesex County, New Jersey,
Program on Immigration and Democracy, Rutgers University, June, 2011, 21 pp.
Funded by the United Way of Central New Jersey and written by Dr. Anastasia R. Mann, this report provides a detailed picture of the foreign-born population in Middlesex County, home to the main campus of Rutgers University and the largest Asian population in New Jersey. The report covers the broad range of newcomer groups, including foreign-students, H1-B visa holders (New Jersey has one of the largest concentrations in the country), immigrant entrepreneurs, working class immigrants, and the undocumented.   The author highlights some of the challenges facing human service agencies and labor organizations working with the more vulnerable segments of the immigrant population and offers some reflections on "policies to help newcomers and receiving communities alike."

Immigrant Integration:  Resource Access and Cultural Exchange,
National League of Cities, City Practice Brief, 2011, 8 pp
This publication provides capsule summaries of 12 local government outreach programs designed to integrate immigrants into civic and community life. Programs vary in their scope and purpose. Some, such as the Russian Advisory Board in West Hollywood and theColoniasProgram in College Station, Texas, are focused on the needs of specific immigrant communities. Others, such as the Office of Multicultural and Religious Affairs of the City of Memphis, target the broader immigrant community. Programs also have different areas of emphasis. The Adopt-a-Mom Program in Guilford County, North Carolina, for example, seeks to improve pre-natal care for Spanish-speaking women, whereas the Cambridge (MA) City Links Program provides public sector internships for language minority youth.

Open to All?  Different Cultures, Same Communities: A Look at Immigrants and Housing in Chicago's Northern Suburbs
Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement, University of Illinois at Chicago, January, 2011, 85 pp.
Produced for the Interfaith Housing Center of the Northern Suburbs with financial support provided by the Immigrant Integration Initiative of the Chicago Community Trust, this report discusses the impact and policy implications of the growing immigrant population in 16 northern Chicago suburbs, where more than a quarter of the population is foreign-born.  Although race and disability discrimination still underlies the majority of fair housing complaints nationally, 15% of complaints in 2009 were based on national origin. Examining housing stock growth in the region during the period from 2000 to 2008, the researchers find a general trend of diminished affordability, with disproportionate impact on the immigrant population. The report includes a section on promising practices employed by municipalities to engage and serve immigrant communities.

Municipal Innovations in Immigrant Integration: 20 Cities, 20 Good Practices,
Municipal Action for Immigrant Integration, National League of Cities, 2010, 44 pp.
This set of practices, drawn from U.S. cities of varying size and location, focuses on four areas:  public safety, immigrant outreach, civic engagement, and city services. Among cities deemed to have good immigrant integration practices are:  Columbus, New York, Philadelphia, Princeton, and Richmond. The report includes demographic profiles of each city, along with short descriptions of government structures.  In some cases, e.g. San Francisco, the "practice" in question is actually a combination of practices designed to promote integration.

Civic Engagement and Recent Immigrant Communities: A Planning Guide for Local Officials and Other Community Leaders,
National League of Cities, Center for Research and Innovation, 2010, 30 pp.
This publication provides guidance to local officials interested in integrating newcomers into the civic life of the city.  It includes step-by-step instructions for conducting meetings with small groups of local leaders who are representative of the many cultural and ethnic groups in the community.  The Guide suggests six important goals that might be accomplished through an effort to promote immigrant civic engagement.
Understanding OPENCities,
British Council, 2010, 70 pp
Underlying the OPENCities project of the British Council are the following assumptions: that openness is "a condition for strong cities in the modern age;" that an openness agenda can be actively promoted by city leaders; that attracting and integrating international migrants are important prerequisites for the open city; and that openness can be measured and compared among cities. The report defines openness as "the capacity of a city to attract international populations and to enable them to contribute to the future success of the city" and identifies more than 50 key indicators of openness. The report also discusses practical steps that can be taken to advance openness and features case studies from Amsterdam, Auckland, Dublin, Madrid, and Toronto, highlighting how each city has embraced openness in its effort to gain competitive advantage in the global economy. This publication -- also available in Spanish, German, and Russian -- is the first of 4 to be released in 2010 addressing a key issue on the OPENCities agenda.
State of Metropolitan America:  On the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation,
The Brookings Institution, Metropolitan Policy Program, 2010, 168 pp
Prepared with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, this report reviews and analyzes the major demographic trends impacting the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Three of nine essays in this report -- all authored by Brookings staff members -- deal with immigration-related topics:  Population and MigrationRace and Ethnicity, and Immigration. A concluding essay addresses the policy implications of the five "new realities" revealed in the research: the growth and outward expansion of the population, population diversification, aging, uneven higher educational attainment, and income polarization. A companion resource is an interactive State of Metropolitan America Indicator Map.

Creating Better Cities for Migrants:  Urban Policies and Practices to Build More Inclusive Cities,
UNESCO and UN-Habitat, January, 2010, 20 pp.
Anticipating new challenges for cities stemming from climate change, economic dislocations, and internal and external migration, UNESCO and UN-Habitat developed this "tool kit" of effective municipal practices for managing diversity for the common good.  With 60% of the world's population expected to live in cities by 2030, the sponsoring international organizations see fundamental changes in the "scale and scope of urban governance," The authors consider local political leaders to be "key actors" in promoting "the social and spatial inclusion of migrants,"  who will constitute a growing share of urban populations in the 21st century.

Immigrant Integration at the Local Level:  Comparison between Stuttgart and Selected U.S. Cities
Transatlantic Academy, 2009, 32 pp.
This study looks at municipal immigrant integration strategies in a transatlantic perspective, comparing the well-resourced, city-wide effort in Stuttgart, the sixth largest city in Germany and a designated integration model for other German cities, with a cross-section of U.S. models, including the Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs in New York City, the work of private sector organizations, such as the Arabic Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS) in the Detroit area  and the International Institute of St. Louis (MO), and policy-oriented research initiatives undertaken by the Urban Institute and the Center for Women in Government and Civil Society at SUNY, Albany.

Parks for All New Yorkers:  Immigrants, Culture, and NYC Parks,
New Yorkers for Parks, October, 2009, 14 pp
Dedicated to ensuring that "all New Yorkers enjoy a world class parks system," New Yorkers for Parks used various research techniques to prepare this report, including a multilingual survey of park users, interviews with members of the New York Immigration Coalition's Parks Collaborative, and a literature review. The report identified nine ways that the City can improve the connections between new immigrants and parks, including providing resources to enhance translation services, implementing a transparent process to issue permits for fields and events, and increasing culturally diverse food vendors in parks.

Mayoral Immigrant and Latino Affairs Offices: A City Practice Brief,
National League of Cities, Spring, 2009, 4 pp.
This brief describes nine municipal offices in seven states and the District of columbia established to promote immigrant integration.

Meeting the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity,
New Jersey Municipalities, March, 2009, 3 pp.
This article discusses the growing number of limited English proficient residents in towns across New Jersey and the steps that local governments can take to make their operations and services more accessible to this segment of the population.

A Local Official's Guide to Immigrant Civic Engagement,
Institute for Local Government, 2008,
28 pp.
Produced by the research arm of the California League of Cities and the California State Association of Counties, this guide is one in a series of studies by the Institute's "collaborative governance initiative." The guide features case examples of communities in California and elsewhere that have been particularly effective in engaging immigrants in community decision-making and gives "10 keys" to encourage immigrant participation in civic life.

An International Destination Point:  Executive Summary Report by the International Philadelphia Work Group,
(Link no longer active),
City of Philadelphia, November, 2008, 15 pp.
Produced in response to an executive order by Mayor Michael A. Nutter, this report asserts that policies to promote immigrant integration are essential to achieve Philadelphia's goal of becoming an international economic hub and destination.  Immigration, the authors conclude, is crucial to reversing Philadelphia's cyle of population decline and stimulating economic development. The report highlights innovative integration practices within the four priority areas of Philadelphia's strategic plan: jobs and economic development, public safety, healthy and sustainable communities, and education.

Immigration Reform:  An Intergovernmental Imperative,
International City Managers Association, October, 2008, 41 pp.
This "white paper," based on more than 500 responses by local government officials to a survey on immigration conducted in the summer of 2008, urges "a clearly articulated division of responsibilities" between the federal government and local governments on immigration matters and the enactment of "sensible" federal immigration reforms, recognizing the special burdens and responsibilities borne by local government in helping to assimilate immigrants into local communities.  The paper defines four principles to guide immigration reform and makes 16 specific recommendations consistent with these principles. The paper features an array of case examples of local immigrant initiatives around the country.

Based on field research conducted by a team of 7 graduate students, with guidance from the staff of the Migration Policy Institute in Washington, D.C., this report explores how local governments in three "gateway" cities are responding to growing immigrant populations. The report explores the nature and effectiveness of  "horizontal" structures to facilitate immigrant integration and also devotes considerable attention to school policies and programs. The authors also suggest some best practices, largely in the area of human resources, to create more responsive governmental institutions.

Los Angeles on the Leading Edge: Immigrant Integration Indicators and their Policy Implications,
National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, Migration Policy Institute, April, 2008, 68 pp.
Arguing the Los Angeles is on the "leading edge" of demographic change due to immigration, with an expanding second generation and a declining first, and with over 40% of all students in the L.A. public schools classified as English language learners (a number three times higher than the school system with the next highest number), this report suggest that Los Angeles could become an important laboratory for systematically addressing issues of immigrant integration. The report contains demographic data specific to the city and numerous recommendations for policy reform, especially in the areas of workforce issues, English language acquisition, PreK-12 education, and health and safety net concerns.

Cities and Immigration:  Local Policies for Immigrant-Friendly Cities,
Center on Wisconsin Strategy, April, 2008, 60 pp.
Favoring "universal policies" over "particularistic or categorical policies," this report provides a menu of policy options for cities intent on responding to the needs of their growing immigrant populations. Options are grouped into four main categories: immigration law enforcement (e.g. policies prohibiting the collection of data on immigration status), employment and self-employment (e.g. living wage ordinances, local hiring mandates for developers), health care (e.g. targeted outreach to boost enrollment in public funded health insurance programs), and other basic services (e.g. language access policies, municipal ID cards). The report also summarizes reasons why immigrant-friendly policies are vital to the well-being of cities.

Report of the Mayor's Task Force on Immigration,
City of Vancouver, Canada, November 2, 2007, 20 pp.
With 46% of its residents foreign-born, Vancouver has the second highest concentration of immigrants in Canada. The City has undertaken a number of initiatives to ensure the accessibility of city services and to create an inclusive community. This report is the latest in a series of policy recommendations to the City Council. One of the recommendations calls for the adoption of a "vision and value statement concerning immigrants and refugees."

Pro-Immigrant Measures Available to State or Local Governments: A Quick Menu of Affirmative Ideas,
National Immigration Law Center, September, 2007, 6 pp.
This is a list of 71 policy recommendations designed to "more effective incorporate immigrants into their communities." Many of them have been successfully implemented in communities around the country.

Division and Dislocation:  Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances
American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer, 2007, 16pp.
This report examines the demographic characteristics of localities that have passed ordinances penalizing landlords who rent to undocumented immigrants, as well as the legal objections to, and economic fallout from, such ordinances.

"Promising Practices in Communitywide Planning,"
in Investing in Our Communities: Strategies for Immigrant Integration,
Grantmakers Concerned With Immigrants and Refugees, 2006
GCIR profiles six local initiatives that demonstrate strategic vision and considerable promise to promote the full integration of newcomers into our society.

The Role of Municipal Leaders in Helping Immigrants Become an Integral Part of Colorado's Communities,
The Colorado Trust and the Colorado Municipal League, June, 2006, 12 pp.
This report offers recommendations to municipal officials to achieve more inclusive communities, along with best practices from nine Colorado cities.

Immigrant Engagement in Public Open Spaces:  Strategies for the New Boston,
Barr Foundation, 2005, 23 pp.
This report is a passionate brief for accomodating immigrant cultures in the design, management, and utilization of public open space. Based on a literature review, interviews with park professionals and environmental activists, and focus groups with newcomers in Boston, the report is replete with examples of innovative park practices, both in Massachusetts and around the country.

Immigrants and Local Governance: The View from City Hall,
Public Policy Institute of California, Issue #101, June, 2005, 115 pp.
Based on mail surveys and interviews with local officials in 304 immigrant destination communities in California, this report summarizes local government practice in responding to the needs of immigrants, with special attention to housing policy and police-community relations. The report also contains a set of recommendations

Final Report of the Immigrant Community Assessment,
Prepared under contract #14830 for Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee, August 15, 2003, 253 pp.
This report is one of the most thorough and painstaking studies of a local immigrant population in the United States. Growing out of a "historic and constructive collaboration" between three local universities, local social service providers, immigrant and refugee community representatives, and local government, the report was researched and written by a team of four sociologists, two psychologists, one education researcher, one health researcher, and one lawyer-social worker. It contains the results of 16 immigrant focus groups, surveys and interviews with 64 social service agencies and community groups, a study of best practices in immigrant integration in the cities of Atlanta, Charlotte, and Memphis. and numerous recommendations to "enhance and encourage a mutually beneficial incorporation of immigrants and refugees into Nashville."